Somaliland

jamhuuriyada barakaysan ee geeska
(Waxaa laga soo toosiyay Soomaaliland)

Somaliland (Af carabi: صوماليلاند) sida dowliga ah loo yaqaano Jamhuuriyada Somaliland, waa dowlad iskeed isugu dhawaaqday madaxbanaanid oo caalamka u aqoonsan ismaamul goboleed ka mid ah Soomaaliya. Somaliland waxee ku taala Geeska Afrika, waxay xad la leedahay Jabuuti, Itoobiya iyo Puntland. Somaliland iyo Jubaland waxey kamid ahaayeen dhulkii soomaalida ee Ingiriisku gumaysan jirey. Waxeyna xornimadda qaadatey Juun 26 1960 afar maalmood ka dibna waxay la midowday Soomaliya inteeda kale oo Talyaanigu guumeysan jiray. magaalada caasimada wa Hargaysa oo ah caasimadda labaad ee Soomaaliya. Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali Tuur oo ahaan jirey hogaamiyihii Ururkii Dhaqdhaqaaqa Wadaniga Somaliyeed SNM, ayaa loo doortay inuu noqdo madaxweynahii ugu horeeyay ee maamulka Somaliland. Waxaa ku xigey Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaaloo noqdey Madaxweynihii Labaad ee Somaliland, waxaana ka danbeeyay Daahir Rayaale Kaahin. Kahina waxa ku xigay Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud (Siilaanyo). Madaxweynaha maanta waa Muuse Biixi Cabdi. Somaliland waxaa ka jira saddex xisbi siyaasadeed oo kala ah Kulmiye, Wadani iyo UCID.

Jamhuuriyadda Somaliland
Republic of Somaliland  (Af-Ingiriisi)[1]
جمهورية صوماليلاند (Af-Carabi)
Jumhūrīyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl

[2]
Hal ku dheg: 
لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله (Carabi)
Lā ilāhā illā-llāhu; muhammadun rasūlu-llāhi
"Ilaah ma jiro Alle mooye; Muxammed waa rasuulka Alle"
Heesta qaranka: 
Samo ku waar
Long life with peace
Magaalo madax
Waa Magaalada ugu balaaran
Hargeysa
9°33′N 44°03′E / 9.550°N 44.050°E / 9.550; 44.050
Luqadaha rasmiga ah
Dadka Soomaali;
Soomaaliyan[3]
Somalilander
Xukunka Madaxweynenimo leh Dastuur Jamhuuriya
 -  Madaxweyne Muuse Biixi Cabdi
 -  madaxwayne kuxigeen Cabdiraxmaan Saylici
 -  Gudoomiyaha Golaha Baashe Maxamed Faarax
Sharci dejinta Baarlamaanka Somaliland
 -  Aqalka sare Golaha Guurtida
 -  Aqalka hoose Golaha Wakiilada
Dowlada iyo Awooda
 -  Ku dhawaaqdey May 18, 1991 
 -  Aqoonsiga Dal aan la aqoonsanayn[4] 
Baaxad
 -  Guud ahaan 137,600 km2 
53,100[5] sq mi 
Tirada dadka
 -  2013 qiyaasta 4,500,000[6]
 -  Mugga Dadka 25/km2
66/sq mi
Wax soo saar (PPP) 2015 qiyaastii
 -  Guud ahaan $320 million[7]
 -  Qof qof $577
Lacagta Somaliland shilling (SSH)
Waqtiga EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Xagaa (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Taariikhda d/m/yy (AD)
Wadista Baabuurta right
Furaha telka +252 (Somalia)
a. Qiimeynta aheyn sida Somaliland waa [aqoonsi diblomaasiyadeed [

Taariikhda

Sidoo kale fiiri: Taariikhda Somaliland
 
Boodey, wuxuu ahaa faraskii Ismaaciil Mire.
 
Sacmadeeqa waa taallo ee u dhow ceelka Qoob Fardood ee xaafadda Buuhoodle.

Somaliland waa magac aad ucusub marka la eego taariikhda uu maamulkani leeyahay somaliland waxaa horay loogu magacaabijiray dhulkii uduga iyo cadarka iyo bukhuurka ama uduga waa sida ay u yaqaaneen masaaridii horee. halka giriigii hore ay u yaqaaneen dhulkii berbera waa halka uu kasoo jeedo magaca berbera xiligii muslimka amaba qarniyadii uu muslimku soo gaadhay somaliland waxa looyaqaanay dhulkii saylac ugu danbayntii xiligan aan joogno waxa lagu magacaabaa somaliland.

Wakhtiyadii Hore

 
Muuse Biixi, madaxweynaha Somaliland

Taariikhdii bilawga ahayd ee casri jaahiligii Somaliland waxay ku taal geeska Afrika, dhinaca Waqooyi galbeed waxa ka xigay deris la tahay dalka Jamhuuriyada Jabouti, galbeedna waxaa ka xiga Ethiopia, barina waxaa ka xiga somalia. Tirada dadka Somalilad waxaa lagu qiyaasaa 5 malyan iy badh. Baaxadda dhulka ay ku fadhido Somaliland waa 139,000 km2. Somaliland waxaa dhinaca waqooyiga ka xiga badda cas oo ku fadhida xeeb dhererkodu yahay 908 km2. Somaliland oo leh taariikh aad u balaadhan dadkuna aanu wada aqoon. Waxay kamid tahay meelaha ugu horraysay ay ka hana qaaday ilbaxnimada adduunku. Dadka taariikhda ku xeeldheeri waxay sheegeen in farraaciintii hore asalkoodu Somali kasoo jeedaan. Deganaana jireen dhulka xeebaha badda cas, taasoo markii danbana ay xidhiidh qoto dheer la lahaayeen Somaliland. Waxaana xaddaaradda Somaliland ku simantahay ilaa 7000 sanadood ciise hortii.

Wakhtigii Diinta Islaamka

Markii diintu soo degtay qarnigii 7aad, geeska Afrika waxay noqotay meel aad u muhiima markii uu muslimay boqorkii Xabashida ee Nataashi. Waxaana xeebaha Somaliland ahaayeen meel istiraaji ah oo asxaabtii usoo xijrootay. Qarnigii 13naad waxaa culimadii carbeed ee dalka timid kadhiseen saldanad la odhan jiray Bebad oo ay xukumi jirtay boqortooyadii Walaashma. Waana markii koowaad inta taariikhda lagu hayo qabaa'ilkii Somalidu yeeshaan maamul dhexe.

Somaliland waxaa ay kamid tahay bariga Afrika marka laga yimaado Itoobiya dalkii ugu horreyey ee ay ka hanaqaaday maamul dawladeed, inkastoo aan runta laga sheegin taariikhda dhab ah ee Somaliland haddana waxaan muran ku jirin in Somaliland qarnigii 15naad ay lahayd dawlad dunida laga ictiraafsanyahay gaar ahaana markii uu hoggaanka qabtay Immam Ahmed Qasali( Guray). Maamulkaas oo markii danbe la magac baxday dawladii Awdal. Xukumina jirtay inta u dhaxaysa xeebaha badda cas ilaa Herer.

Wakhtigii Gumaystaha

Sannadkii 1869kii ayaa waxaa la furay marinka kanaal Suways oo taasi ku dhiirigelisay gumaystayaashii reer Yurub ee Afrika qaybsaday 1884 shirkii Barlin. Waxaana la aamisan yahay in Somaliland oo ahayd dal ku fiican dhinaca istiraajiyada oo isku xidhaayey bada cas iyo bad weynta India. Haddaba salaanka gumaystayaasha ee Somaliland waxaa uu kawsaday 1839kii markii Ingiriisku qabsaday magaalada xeebta ah ee Cadan. Sannadkii 1827kii ayaa Captain Bermer oo ahaa badmareen ingiriis ahi yimid Somaliland oo uu xidhiidh la yeeshay odayaashii dhaqanka ee Somaliland. Lugtii ay lasoo galeen gumaystayaashu Somaliland waxay dhaafi kari waayeen xeebaha waxaana usuuroobi wayday inay waddanka horuu galaan intii ka horraysay Captain Sir Richman Burton. Mr. Burton wuxuu galay gudaha dalka waxaanu tagay dhulka miyiga ah, waxaana uu sanadii 1854kii lug kumaray xeebta Berbera ilaa magaalada Herar.

Hadaba Boqortooyadii Engiriiska waxay yimaadeen xeebaha Somaliland. Ingiriisku dhowr jeer buu heshiisyo kala duwan la saxeexday odoyaashii Somaliland. Waxanaa ugu caansan heshiiskii hargaha ee sannadkii 1887kii oo heshiisyo la saxeexdeen odoyaashii Beelaha Somaliland. Sannadkii 1899kii waxaa bilawday kacdoon iyo dhaq dhaqaaqyo lagaga soo jeedo gumaysigii ingiriiska. Waxaana guluf iyo dagaal dhexmaray ciidamadii Sayidka ee daraawiishta iyo dawladdii Ingiriiska . Ugu danbayna waxaa la jebiyey Mohamed Cabdulle Xasan sannadku markuu ahaa 1920kii. Waxaana halkaas kasii anbaqaaday halgamaayaashii Shiikh Bashir iyo Farah Omaar usoo halgamay xornimadii aan qaadanay lixdankii. Waxaana dalka ka bilwaday kacdoon gobonidoon dagaalkii labaad dabadiisii.

Xoriyadii 1960 iyo wixii kadanbeeyay

Dawlada Ethiopia ayaa waxay qorshaynaysaa sidii ay u aqoon san lahayd somalailand. Bishii febraayo 1960kii ayaa wafdi uu hoggaaminaayo Alle ha u naxariistee Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal u anbaxaxeen dalka Ingiriiska, waxaana heshiis ay la soo galeen dawladdii ingiriiska in Somaliland xirnimo buuxda lasiiyo. 26 Juun 1960kii bay markii maxmiyadii ingriiska ee Somaliland "British Somaliland protectorate" xornimadeeda ka qaateen dawladii Ingiriiska,sida aan la socono intii ka horraysay 01 Luulyo 1960kii Somaliland waxay ahayd dawlad gooniya( indepedent state). waxayna noqdeen dawlad madax bannaan oo la aqoonsan yahay ilaa 01 Luulyo 1960kii. Isla maalintaas Koonfurtu xorayday ayaa labada dal midoobeen inkastoo midawgaas mad madaw badani ku jiro. Dad badanina u haystaan in midowgaasi ahayn mid sharciya. Bishii Luulyo1961kii waxaa dadka reer Somaliland gaashaanka ku dhufteen oo cod aqliyad ah ku diideen distoorkii qeexayey ee lagu sharciyeynaayey israaca labada dal ee Somaliya iyo Somaliland. Laakiin nasiib darro dawladdii markaas jirtay oo reer Koonfureedka ahayd waxay diideen inay aqoonsadaan maxsuulkii doorashadaas sababtoo maslaxad baan ugu jirin arrintan. Bishii december 1961 waxaa madaxdii ciidamada qalabka sida ee Somaliya isku dayeen inay dhigaan inqilaabkii dhicisoobay. Inqilaabkaasna waxay doonayeen inay kula soo noqdaan madaxbannaanidii luntay. 1967kii waxaa dalka ka noqday raysal wasaare Mohamed X.Ibrahim Cigaal. Halka uu madaxweynaha ka noqday Cabdirashid Cali sharmake. 15 Oktober 1969kii waxaa magaalada laascaanood lagu dilay madaxweynihii Jamhuuriyadda Somalida ee Cabdirashid Cali Sharmaake.

Inqilaabkii 21 oktober iyo wixii kasoobaxay

Waxaana midnimadii 60kii guul darro ku dhamaatay markii 21 Oktober 1969kii uu dalka ka dhacay inqilaab aan dhiig ku daadan ee ay dhigeen ciimada qalabka sidaa, waxaana talada la wareegay ciidamada oo uu hoggaaminaayo mujrimkii Gen. Mohamed Siyaad Barre. 10 januari 1970kii waxaa kelidii taliyihii Siyaad Barre sameeyey maxkamadii badbaada oo xukumi jirtay xukunka dilka si looga takhaluso dadka aan taageersanayn madaxweynaha.

21 Oktober 1970kii wuxuu Siyaad Barre ku dhawaaqay in Somaliya qaadatay nidaamka hantiwadaaga cilmiga ku dhisan. Taasoo rabay inuu ugu bedelo inqilaabkii hab ku salaysan dhaqaaq siyaasadeed oo ku salaysan aydhiyooliyadda hantiwadaaga. Waxaana loo ololeeyey wixii loogu magacdaray kacaankii hantiwadaaga Somaliyeed. Xagaagii 1972kii waxaa la sameeyey ciimadii guulwadayaasha oo ujeedadoodu ahayd inay cabudhiyaan oo xabsiga u taxaabaan dadka shacbiga ee lagu tuxmo inay kacaan diid yihiin. July 1972kii waxaa la dilay labadii Jenaraal ee Salaad Gabayle, iyo Mohamed aynaanshe oo ka tirsanaa saraakiishii inqilaabka dhigay. Salaad gabayle wuxuu ahaa madaxweyne ku xigeen. Waxaa lagu xukumay dil ka dib markii lagu eedeeyey inay maleegayeen shirqool ay xukunka kaga tuurayaan Siyaad Barre.

Oktober 1972kii waxaa lagu dhaqaaqay in la qoro Af-soomaliga oo uu noqdo luqadda rasmiga ah ee dalka. 1972kii-1975kii waxaa la qaaday ololihii barashada qorista Somaliga oo markii danbana isu rogay olalihii horumarinta reer miyiga ee la rabay in dadku waxna qoraan waxna akhriyaan. 1975kii waxaa la sameeyey 15 gobol oo cusub oo lagu bedelayeey 8 gobol ee hore u jiray. Waxaana ay ka koobnaayeen 78 degmo. Somaliland oo ka koobnayd 3 gobol looma samayn gobolo iyo degmooyin cusub toona. 1975kii Siyaad Barre wuxuu shaqadii ka eryey 50 saraakiil sare iyo madax ah oo badankooda ka soo jeeda Somaliland, waxaana uu ku bedelay dadka uu ku tuhmaayey inay taageersanyihiin kacaanka oo u badnaa caa'iladiisa ah. M.s.bare wuxuu ku dhawaaqay inay raga iyo dumarku siman yihiin culimadii iyo dhalinyaradii kasoo horjeedsatayna laayay dhamaantood. 1977kii maamulkii siyaad Barre wuxuu weerar ku qaaday dalka Itoobiya, waxaana markii hore uu ku guulaystay dagaalkaas. Laakiin waxaa dagaalku dhamaaday markii ciidamo Ruush iyo Kuubaan ahi usoo gurmadeenItoobiya ee ay si toosa dagaalka usoo galeen. Waxaana ciidamadii Somaliya dibuga soo noqatay dhammaan dhulkii horuu qabsadeen.

Ku dhawaaqidii Maxadbanaanida

27 Jannayo 1991 ayaa ciidamadii SNM gacanta ku dhigeen dhamaan dalkii hore loo odhan jiray Somaliland. Dabadeedna madaxdii SNM waxay ka shaqeeyeen inay heshiiyeen oo beelihii walaalaha ee ay iska horkeentay dawladii hore ee Siyaad Barre. 18 Mey 1991 shirbeeleedkii ka dhacay magaalada Burco ayaa lagu go'aansaday lagagana dhawaaqay gooni isu taagga qaranimada Somaliland.

Juquraafiga

 
Biyoshubka Lamadaya ee kuyaala Buurta Cal Madow.
 
Deegaano.
 
Buurta Cal Madow
 
Xeebta Berbera

Somaliland waxay dhacdaa waqooyi-galbeed Soomaaliya, taasi oo udhexaysa dhigaha 08°00' – 11°30' waqooyiga dhulbadhaha iyo loolasha 42°30' – 49°00' ee bariga Greenwich. Waxa dhinaca galbeed ka xiga wadanka Jabuuti, dhinaca koonfureed wadanka Itoobiya, iyo dhinaca bari oo ka xigto maamul-goboleedka Puntland. Somaliland waxay leedahay xeeb-badeed dhererkeedu le'eg yahay 740 kilometres (460 mi);viyo dhul baaxadeedu le'eg yahay 176,120 km2 (68,000 sq mi).[8]

Somaliland waxa ay dhul ahaan fidsantahay 137000 km laba jibbaaran dhulaka ay ka koobantahya jamhuuriyadani waxa uu u badanyahay dhul deegaana am waaba lawada daganyahay waxa uuleeyahay buuro iyo meelo banaan ah haddii lysidhaahdo taariikhda uu wadankani lereyahay iyo taariihda uu shacabkani leeyahayba ka sheekeeya waxay noqonaysaa mid aad u dheer.

Gobolada

Sidoo kale fiiri Gobolada Somaliland
 
gobolada somaliland

Somaliland waxa ay ka koobantahy gobolo badan waxa u gu wayn gobalada somaliland gobolka sanaag gobolada somaliland waxa ay kalayihiin sidan. Gobolada somaliland Intii u dhaxaysa 22 maarso ilaa 22 may, 2008, waxa uu madaxwaynihii horore ee Somaliland magacaabay gobolo cusub oo lagu daray goboladii hore ee lixda ahaa taas oo kadhigatay gobolada somaliland 13 gobol, gobolda cusub ee kuwii hore lagu daray waxa ay yihiin sidan.

Sequence Gobol Magaalo madax Baaxad
(km2)
Dadka
Cufnaan (km2)
1 Salal Saylac n/a n/a
2 Awdal Boorama n/a n/a
3 Gabiley Gabiley n/a n/a
4 Maroodi Jeex Hargeysa n/a n/a
5 Saaxil Berbera n/a n/a
6 Daadmadheedh Oodweyne n/a n/a
7 Togdheer Burco n/a n/a
8 Cayn Buuhoodle n/a n/a
9 Sarar Caynaba n/a n/a
10 Sanaag Ceerigaabo n/a n/a
11 Maakhir Badhan n/a n/a
12 Hawd Baligubadle n/a n/a
13 Haysimo Taleex n/a n/a

Magaalooyinka Waawayn

Sidoo kale fiiri: Magaalooyinka Somaliland

Cimiladda

Somaliland waxay dhacdaa waqooyiga dhulbadaha. Waa deegaan qalalan (Lamadegaan la mood), isku celceliska heerkulku yahay 25 to 35 °C (77 to 95 °F) taasi oo hesha roob dhan 446 millimetres (17.6 in) sanadkii.[9] Deegaanada Somaliland waxaa loo qeybiyaa sadex nooc oo kala ah: (1). Guban: dhul lamadegaan qalalan (2) Oogo: xooggag sare (3) Hawd: dhul daaqsiimeed.[10]

Faahfaahin Cimilada Hargeysa
Bilaha Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sanad
Kuleel daran °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
32.8
(91.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.0
(95.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
28.9
(84.0)
35.0
(95.0)
Kuleel aan darnayn °C (°F) 24.2
(75.6)
26.6
(79.9)
28.7
(83.7)
29.2
(84.6)
30.5
(86.9)
31.0
(87.8)
29.2
(84.6)
29.2
(84.6)
30.5
(86.9)
28.2
(82.8)
26.0
(78.8)
23.7
(74.7)
28.1
(82.6)
Maalinle °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
18.7
(65.7)
21.6
(70.9)
23.0
(73.4)
24.1
(75.4)
24.3
(75.7)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
23.6
(74.5)
24.1
(75.4)
18.7
(65.7)
18.0
(64.4)
21.7
(71.1)
Hoos udhaca kuleelka °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.6
(54.7)
15.0
(59.0)
16.6
(61.9)
17.7
(63.9)
17.7
(63.9)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
17.1
(62.8)
15.0
(59.0)
13.1
(55.6)
12.1
(53.8)
15.2
(59.4)
Hoos udhac qiyaas leh °C (°F) 2.8
(37.0)
2.8
(37.0)
3.9
(39.0)
9.4
(48.9)
11.7
(53.1)
11.7
(53.1)
10.5
(50.9)
11.1
(52.0)
11.1
(52.0)
7.2
(45.0)
4.4
(39.9)
4.4
(39.9)
2.8
(37.0)
Roobka mm (Faro) 2
(0.08)
2
(0.08)
36
(1.42)
53
(2.09)
49
(1.93)
61
(2.4)
38
(1.5)
81
(3.19)
61
(2.4)
20
(0.79)
8
(0.31)
1
(0.04)
412
(16.22)
Dhado 65 65 58 57 56 55 53 53 55 56 61 64 58.2
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1 1 3 6 7 9 8 10 11 4 1 0 61
Percent possible sunshine 80 73 80 73 64 73 64 64 73 80 80 80 74
Source #1: Food and Agriculture Organization: Somalia Water and Land Management (temperatures, humidity and percent sunshine)[11][12]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst[13]
Faahfaahin Cimilada Borama
Bilaha Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sanad
Kuleel aan darnayn °C (°F) 24.6
(76.3)
25.4
(77.7)
27.5
(81.5)
27.8
(82.0)
29.3
(84.7)
30.0
(86.0)
28.8
(83.8)
28.8
(83.8)
29.0
(84.2)
27.4
(81.3)
25.8
(78.4)
24.4
(75.9)
27.40
(81.32)
Hoos udhaca kuleelka °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
11.7
(53.1)
13.8
(56.8)
15.7
(60.3)
17.0
(62.6)
18.3
(64.9)
17.8
(64.0)
17.6
(63.7)
17.3
(63.1)
13.7
(56.7)
11.3
(52.3)
10.4
(50.7)
14.53
(58.15)
Roobka mm (Faraha) 6
(0.24)
21
(0.83)
36
(1.42)
86
(3.39)
61
(2.4)
32
(1.26)
78
(3.07)
112
(4.41)
86
(3.39)
18
(0.71)
10
(0.39)
2
(0.08)
548
(21.57)
Source: Climate-Data.org[14]
Faahfaahin Cimilada Berbera
Bilaha Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sanad
Kuleel daran °C (°F) 35.3
(95.5)
35.0
(95.0)
35.0
(95.0)
42.2
(108.0)
47.3
(117.1)
49.1
(120.4)
47.7
(117.9)
46.7
(116.1)
46.0
(114.8)
41.7
(107.1)
36.7
(98.1)
36.1
(97.0)
49.1
(120.4)
Kuleel aan darnayn °C (°F) 27.9
(82.2)
29.2
(84.6)
30.7
(87.3)
31.0
(87.8)
35.7
(96.3)
42.8
(109.0)
42.9
(109.2)
41.9
(107.4)
39.7
(103.5)
33.1
(91.6)
30.0
(86.0)
28.6
(83.5)
34.5
(94.1)
Maalinle °C (°F) 25.0
(77.0)
25.0
(77.0)
26.1
(79.0)
28.3
(82.9)
31.1
(88.0)
33.5
(92.3)
36.1
(97.0)
35.6
(96.1)
33.3
(91.9)
28.8
(83.8)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
30.0
(86.0)
Hoos udhaca kuleelka °C (°F) 21.3
(70.3)
21.6
(70.9)
23.3
(73.9)
25.2
(77.4)
27.7
(81.9)
31.0
(87.8)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88.0)
29.3
(84.7)
24.0
(75.2)
22.2
(72.0)
21.6
(70.9)
25.8
(78.4)
Hoos udhac qiyaas leh °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
18.9
(66.0)
20.6
(69.1)
22.2
(72.0)
20.6
(69.1)
20.0
(68.0)
17.8
(64.0)
16.7
(62.1)
16.1
(61.0)
15.0
(59.0)
14.4
(57.9)
Roobka mm (Faro) 8
(0.31)
2
(0.08)
5
(0.2)
12
(0.47)
8
(0.31)
1
(0.04)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
5
(0.2)
5
(0.2)
52
(2.05)
Dhado 78 79 79 81 73 49 44 45 51 72 74 76 67
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.4 5.2
Percent possible sunshine 80 80 80 83 83 87 80 87 87 87 87 80 83
Source #1: Arab Meteorology Book (average temperatures, humidity and precipitation),[15] Deutscher Wetterdienst[16]
Source #2: Food and Agriculture Organization: Somalia Water and Land Management (percent sunshine)[17]
Faahfaahin Cimilada Burco
Bilaha Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sanad
Kuleel aan darnayn °C (°F) 26.5
(79.7)
28.0
(82.4)
29.7
(85.5)
30.7
(87.3)
31.3
(88.3)
31
(88)
29.4
(84.9)
30.4
(86.7)
31.6
(88.9)
29.8
(85.6)
27.6
(81.7)
26.5
(79.7)
29.4
(84.9)
Hoos udhaca kuleelka °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
13.8
(56.8)
15.6
(60.1)
17.3
(63.1)
18.4
(65.1)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.5
(67.1)
19.4
(66.9)
16.2
(61.2)
14.3
(57.7)
13
(55)
16.6
(61.8)
Roobka mm (Faro) 2
(0.08)
0
(0)
6
(0.24)
50
(1.97)
59
(2.32)
14
(0.55)
13
(0.51)
13
(0.51)
30
(1.18)
26
(1.02)
9
(0.35)
0
(0)
222
(8.74)
Source #1: Weatherbase[18]
Source #2: Climate Data.ORG[19]
Faahfaahin Cimilada Ceerigaabo
Bilaha Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sanad
Kuleel daran °C (°F) 30.5
(86.9)
33.5
(92.3)
32.0
(89.6)
33.5
(92.3)
31.5
(88.7)
30.5
(86.9)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
29.5
(85.1)
29.5
(85.1)
28.0
(82.4)
33.5
(92.3)
Kuleel aan darnayn °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
25.5
(77.9)
25.5
(77.9)
26.5
(79.7)
26.5
(79.7)
26.0
(78.8)
26.0
(78.8)
26.0
(78.8)
25.5
(77.9)
25.0
(77.0)
24.0
(75.2)
23.5
(74.3)
25.5
(77.9)
Maalinle °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
16.0
(60.8)
17.0
(62.6)
18.0
(64.4)
19.0
(66.2)
19.5
(67.1)
19.5
(67.1)
19.5
(67.1)
18.5
(65.3)
16.5
(61.7)
15.5
(59.9)
14.5
(58.1)
17.5
(63.5)
Hoos udhaca kuleelka °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.0
(44.6)
8.5
(47.3)
10.0
(50.0)
11.5
(52.7)
13.0
(55.4)
13.5
(56.3)
13.5
(56.3)
11.5
(52.7)
8.5
(47.3)
7.0
(44.6)
5.5
(41.9)
9.5
(49.1)
Hoos udhac qiyaas leh °C (°F) −3.5
(25.7)
0.5
(32.9)
0.5
(32.9)
2.0
(35.6)
1.5
(34.7)
4.0
(39.2)
5.0
(41.0)
4.5
(40.1)
3.0
(37.4)
0.0
(32.0)
−3
(26.6)
−3.5
(25.7)
−3.5
(25.7)
Roobka mm (Faro) 18
(0.71)
13
(0.51)
33
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
81
(3.19)
64
(2.52)
10
(0.39)
41
(1.61)
114
(4.49)
8
(0.31)
13
(0.51)
2
(0.08)
435
(17.13)
Dhado 34 35 42 56 51 48 43 49 55 43 34 37 44
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1 3 6 5 8 9 1 5 15 1 2 0 56
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[20]

Dowlada iyo Siyaasada

Madaxweyneyaasha

Sidoo kale fiiri: Jagada Madaxwaynaha Somaliland
Xilka qabtay Sawir Jagada Xisbi Faallo
28 May 1991 to 16 May 1993   Cabdiraxmaan Axmed Cali Tuur, Madaxweyne SNM
16 May 1993 to 3 May 2002   Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal, Madaxweyne SNM/UDUB Dhintey asago xilka haya.
3 May 2002 to 27 July 2010   Daahir Rayaale Kaahin, Madaxweyne UDUB
27 July 2010 ilaa 13 Diisambar 2017   Siilaanyo, Madaxweyne KULMIYE
13 Diisambar 2017 ilaa Hadda   Muuse Biixi Cabdi, Madaxweyne KULMIYE

Ciidanka

 
Astaanta Qiidanka Qaran Somaliland

Ciidamada Somaliland (Ciidanka Qaranka) Somalilanad waxa ay leedahay ciidan militari oo si habaysan u tababaran kaas oo ah ilaaliyaha koobaad ee ciida somaliland. ciidamada somaliland waxa ay fadhiisimo iyo saldhigyo ku leeyihiin dhamaan wadanka. ciidamada somaliland waxa ay leeyhiin dhamaan qaybaha ciidan ee wadan yeesho. waxaa sharci ahaan loo ogolyahay dadka wixii kawayn 18 ilaa 49 ciidanka somaliland waxa lagu qiyaasaa ilaa 20.000 oo askari. Ciidamada somaliland waxay ka qaybqaatan ilaalinta ciidooda taaso oo ah arin muqaddas ah.

 
calaamda somaliland

Astaanta Somaliland waxaa la abaabulay Oktoobar 1996dii, ayada iyo calankaba. waxa ay kakoobantahay laba kafadood iyo miisaan isleeg, oo muujinaya cadaalda dhextaala shacabka somaliland iyo gorgor sare u haya miisaanka oo isna tusaale u ah dimuquraadiyada ay somaliland kudhaqanto waxa kale o kamida astaanta qaranka laba gacmood oo issisalaamya. waxaanay tasi tusaale u tahay sinaanta iyo cadaalada iyo dimuquraadiya dhextaala dadka reer somaliland waxa kale oo kamida calaamdaha ay kakoobantahay astaanta qaranka somaliland laan geed oo muujinaysa nabada ay haystaan shacabku waxa kale oo kamida halka danbe oo ah huruud taas oo muujinaysa dhaqan wanaaga shacabka somaliland waxa kale oo walaiba kamida bisinka oo kaga yaala halka sare oo muujinaya in shacabka somaliland ay yihiin dad islaama.

Calanka

 
calankii hore ee Somaliland, 1991-1996

Calanka Somaliland]] Calanka Somaliland waxa markii uguhoraysay la isticmaalay calanka somaliland ee xilagan 14 0ktoba 1996kii waxa uu calanka somaliland ka koobanyahay sadex khad ama kald oo jiif ah waxa ugu koreeya cagaar waxa cadaan oo dhexda ah iyo casaan oo hoosta ah dehexdana waxaa kaga taala calanka xidig madaw waxa dhanka sare ee calanka ku taala shahaadada (لا إله إلا الله, محمد رسول الله) oo far cad kuqoran Heesta calanka samo kuwaar waa heesta calanka somaliland ee hada waxaana loogu dhawaaqaa sidan

   Samoo ku waar samoo ku waar
   Sareeye calanka sudhan biley dhulkissa
   Samoo ku waariyo iyo bogaadin sugan
   Hambalyo suuban kugu salaanee samoo ku waar
   Hambalyo suuban kugu salaanee samoo ku waar
   Geesiyaashii naftooda u sadqeeyey qaranimadad somaliland
   Geesiyaashii naftooda u sadqeeyey qaranimadad somaliland
   Xuskooda dhawrsan kugu salaanee samoo ku waar
   Xuskooda dhawrsan kugu salaanee samoo ku waar
   Guul side xambaarsan soo noqoshaddiisa
   Guul side xambaarsan soo noqoshaddiisa
   Kalsooniduu mutaystayee dastuurka 
   Distuurka ku salaan kugu salaanee
   Midnimo walaalnimo gobonimoo
   Midnimo walaalnimo gobonimoo
   Islaamnimo kugu salaanee
   Samoow saamidiyo samoo ku waar 
   Samoo ku waar saamo ku waar

Maalinta Madaxbanaanida

Maalinta xoriyada Somaliland waa maalinta ee maamulka Goboleedka la aqoonsan ee u dabaaldagto xoriyada ee aaminsanyihiin in ee ka heleen soomaaliya isla markaasneh ee ka go'een soomaaliya inteeda kale.Xuskii ugu danbeeyay waxee dhacday 18 may 2011.

Doorashooyinkii 2010

Waxa wadankan ka dhacay doorashooyin madax banaan oo shacabku si run ah ay u dooranayeen waxa kale oo horay uga dhacay somaliland doorashooyin doorashaddii, uguhoraysay ee kadhacady somaliland waxa ay hayd dheceen sanadii 1997 waxca ku gulaystay madaxwayne Maxamed Xaaji Ibraahim Cigaal doorashada labaad ee kadhacady somalilad waxa ay dhacday sanadii 2003 halka tii sadexaad oo ah in ay jabisay rikoodhkii u yaaly afrika oo ahaaa in laba doorasho oo isku xiga wax kacadani aany wadan afrikaana kadhici iyada oo lagu yaqaanay in haddii doorasho sadexaad loodhaqaaqo uu wadankasta oo afrika kuyaala dagaal sokeeye ka bilaabmi jiray . ayaa wadanka somaliland waxa uu marayaa doorashaddii sadexaad ee si habsamiya uga dhacda doorashadan ugu danbaysay waxa ay djacday sandkii aynu soodhaafanay ee 2010ka waxaana madaxwayne loo doortay mujaaahidka wayn ee axmed maxamed maxamuud siilaanyo

Dhaqaalaha

Lacagta

 
50 USD equivalent in 2011

Somaliland shilling waa lacagta laga isticmaalo somaliland waxa lahirgaliyay daabacaada iyo isticmalka lacagtan, 18 aktobar 1994, waxa ay ka koobantahay lacagta somaliland waraaqo iyo biro kal ah sidan soo 1,5,10,20,100,500, iyo 5000 Sidan lawada socono astaanta qaranku waa shayga kaliyata ee lagu garto dawlad amaba lagu aqoonsado qaran keena, somaliland waxuu leeyahay astaan iyo lacag u gaar ah taa oo uu kaga duwan yahay bulshada caalamka iyo Gobolka geeska afrikaba, hadaba tan iyo waxii ka adan beeyay sanadkii 1991 somaliland waxay lahayd lacag u gaar ah taasi oo aan gabi hanba wada gaadhin gobolada somaliland oo dhan , iyadoo inta badan ku kooban hargaysa oo ah caasimada somaliland. halka aan lagaba aqoon gobola da kale dalka sida gobolada Bariga ee ay ka mid ka yihiin gobolka togdheer,sanaag iyo sool ,waxaana laga isticmalaa badiba lacago qalaad oo kala duwan ku wasi oo iskugu jira lacagta itopiyanka iyo lacagtii faqashta ee soomaliyadii hore, dhinacakale waxad arkaysaa markaad tagto magaloyinka aan kor ku soo xusay iyo qaar kaleba inaad markaad dhex marayso goobaha lacagaha lagu sarifo anad arkayninba wax lacag shilinka somalialand ah mana jiraan lacago somaliland ah oo ay indha haagu qabanayaan, dhinacakale´shilinka somaliland hadad is tidhaah do suqa wax kaga so iibso ama ba wax kaga soo cun hotelada laga cunteeyo lagama yaabo inaad wax lagaga iibiyo, waxa yaduna nasiib daraa in qaar kamid ah lacagta shilinka somaliland ah guud ahan ba wadanka gudihiisa lagama qaato xataa casimada inana waxba lagaga iibin ibin mayo lacagtaas oo inta badan musha har loo ´siyo ciidamada qaranka marka ay isku dayaan inay ku soo adeegtana aan lagaqadan lacagtaas aan kor ku soo xusayna waxa kamid ah 5ta´shilin 10´ka shilin iyo 20´ka shilin lacagtasi la diidayaana waa lacagtii qaranka hadaba, waxa nasiib Daraa inay somaliland ku faanto inay hormar ka gaadhay dhinacyo badan sida dimuqraadiyada ´ dhaqaalaha´ Tignolajiyada iyo waxbarashada, hadana hormar ay gaadho iska dhaafo ay lacagteedii ayaa weli saaran Geedka Madhaafto

Warbaahinta

Somaliland waxa ay leedahay warbaahin madaxbanaan oo aanay cidi kormerin haba yaraatee war baahintaasi waxa ay isugu jirataaa warbaahinta la akhriyo tan ladaawdo iyo tan la dhagaysto. kuwa ugu waawayn ama ugu caansana waxa kamida, wargayska jamhuuriya wargayska haatuf, tv ga horm kabel tv iyo shabakadda wararka caalamiga ah ee xoriyonews.com waxa jira warbaahin kale oo aad iyo aad u fara badan oo wadanka ka jira ciidamada qarnka ee somaliland waxa ay u kalabaxaan sida aan horeba usoo sheegnay qaybaha ciidan ee uu wadan yeesho

Dawlada Ethiopia ayaa la filaayaa inay bisha tobnaad aad aqoonsato somaliland sida lagu baahiayay boga internetka ee ay dawaldu maamusho. Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland Shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland Shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland oo si rasmiya ugu Dhawaaqay inay Isu- Fureen Adeegyadoodii Taleefoonada iyo Madaxweyne Ku-xigeenka oo ka qayb galay Xafladii lagu Daah-furay. Munaasibada lagu Daahfurayay Isku-xidhka Shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland ayaa lagu qabtay Hoteelka Maansoor ee Magaalada Hargeysa. Xafladan oo lagaga dhawaaqay isku-xidhka shan Shirkadood oo ka mid ah Shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland oo kala ah Somtel, Nation Link, Telcom, Soltelco, African Online., waxa ka qayb galay Madaxweyne ku-xigeenka Somaliland C/raxmaan Saylici, Wasiirka Boosaha iyo Isgaadhsiinta Axmed Xaashi Oday, Wasiirka Diinta iyo awqaafta Sh. Khaliil C/laahi, Maareeyaha Hawlaha shaqada ee Shirkadda Somtel Cali Saalax Cabdi, Mahdi Daahir Jaamac oo ah Maareeye ku-xigeenka Shirkadda Nation-link, Madax Shirkada Telcom Aadan C/laahi, Mareeyaha Shirkada Soltelco Mukhtaar Osman iyo Marti sharaf kale. Madaxweyne ku-xigeenka Somaliland C/raxmaan C/lahi Ismaaciil oo Munaasibadaasi ka hadlay ayaa soo dhaweeyay isku xidhka shirkadahan isgaadhsiinta oo wax badan ka tari doona dhibaatooyinkii Bulshada ka haysatay dhinaca Isgaadhsiinta, gaar ahaan wada hadal la’aanta dadka isticmaalada adeegyada kala duwan ee Shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta. Waxaanu yidhi “Runtii waxa maanta Farxad ii ah inaan ka soo qayb galo, isku xidhkii shirkadaha Isgaadhsiinta oo runtii baahi weyn loo qabay inaynu ku wada xidhiidhno, iyadoo laga maarmayo sadexdii Telefoon iyo afartii Telefoion ee markii hore la sitay, arintan oo runtii ka mid ahayd balanqaadyadii Xisbiga Kulmiye ee in adeegyada Bulshada la mideeyo”. Mr. Saylici isagoo hadalkiisa sii wata waxa uu sheegay “Maanta waxaan ku faraxsanahay in talaabada koowaad ee la qaaday inteedii badnaydna Wasiirka Boosaha iyo Isgaadhsiintu halkan ka sheegay , shirkadaha laftoodiina ay ka marag kaceen, muhiimada aynu u soconaana waxay tahay inaynu shacbigeena u wada adeegno oo aynu ka saarno qoqobkii ku kala jiray ama kala xidhnaantii ku kala jirtay ,maadaama oo suuqeenu yahay suuq mid xor ah, waxaan qabaa inaanu dawladu mar walba ka madhnayn shirkadaha isgaadhsiinta oo waxa loo sameeyaa Cashuur dhaaf”. Wasiirka Boosaha iyo Isgaadhsiinta Somaliland Axmed Xaashi Oday oo Munaasibadaasi ka hadlay ayaa sheegay sheegay in Wasaarada Boosaha iyo isgaadhsiintu si isku mid ah u maamuli doonto iska Xidhka Shirdahan adeegyadooda Xidhiidhka laysku furay, isagoo hoosta ka xarriiqay inay si caadalad iyo sinaan ah ay u ilaalin doonaan dhamaan shirkadahan xuquuqdooda Ganacsi iyo sirta Adeegyadooda. Guddoomiyaha Guddidii ka soo shaqaysay isku xidhka shirkadahan Isgaadhsiinta ee mideeyay Adeegyadooda Isgaadhsiinta Mr: Jaamac X. Maxamed Cigaal ayaa isna munaasibadaasi ka sheegay qaabka ay dadku ugu wada Xidhiidhayaan shanta shirkadood ee laysku xidhay, waxaanu halkaasi ku soo

Bulshada

Maalmaha la Xuso

  • 1- 26 Juun oo ah maalinta ay ka qadatay xornimada gumaysigii Ingiriiska.
  • 2- 18. May maalinta xoriyada somaliland oo ku beegan 18.May.1991 kii maalintii shirweynihi shacabka reer somaliland gua'an sadiin guuni isotaga jumhuriyada somaliland ee ka dhacay Magaalada Burco.
  • 3- Labada Ciidood ee Islaamka
  • 4- Maalmaha Caalamiga ah sida maalinta shaqaalaha, Aydhiska, iwm.

Qabiilada

Qabiilada waqooyiga Soomaaliya waxay u kala baxaan naanaysyo. Waxaa taas ka mid ah, waqooyiga dir oo ku magacdheer Samaaroon, Ciidagale iyo habaryoonis oo ku magacdheer Garhajis, maxamud Harti oo ku magacdheer Warsangeli, iyo Dhulbahante oo ku magacdheer reer darawiish.

Qabiilada weyn ee oo ku nool Somaliland waxaa ka mid ah Warsangeli, reer darawiish, Habar Awal, Garhajis, Habar jeclo, Ciise, iyo Gadabuursi, laakin reer darawiish iyo Warsangeli badankood waxay tageersan yihiin jiritaanka qowmiyadda Soomaaliya.

Luqadaha

Luqadaha Somaliland Somaliland waxa lagaga hadlaa luqada somaliga oo boqolkiiba boqol ay kuhadalaan dadka kudhaqan somaliland waliba lahjada afsoomaaliga ugu nadiifsan amaba ugu dhaw marka laeego luqada somaliga ee qadiimka ah dadka kudhaqan somaliland lahjada afsomaliga ee ay kuhadlaan waxa ay shabahdaa ta wararka lagusiidaayo amaba saxaafada loo adeegsado. waxa kale oo somaliland lagaga hadlaa Carabiga iyo Ingiriisiga oo ah laba luqadood oo iyana wadanka si rasmi ah looga isticmaalo, qodobka lixaad ee wadanka uyaala waxa kuqoran in somaliga carabiga iyo ingriisugu ay yihiin sadaxda luqadood ee wadanka sirasmi ah looga isticmaali karo

Waxbarashada

Warbixin Kale

Goobaha Dalxiiska

Dalka Somaliland wuxu leeyahay deegaan ballaadhan oo dhul badhka uu ku fadhiyo lagu qiyaaso 136200KM2 iyo bad leh xeeb dhererkoodu dhanyahay 850Km2 laga bilaabo Lawyacaddo dhinaca galbeed illaa Ceelaayo dhinaca bari. Somaliland waa qaran ka nasiib badan qoomiyado badan oo caalamka ah marka laga eego cimillada iyo hawada meel dhexadka ah xilli kasta, dhulka fidsan iyo deegaanka kala nooc nooca ah. Goobaha aad loo dalxiiso ee Somaliland waxa ka mid ah daljirka dahsoon ee Hargeysa ku yaalla, dhammaan magaalooyinka qadiimiga ah ee dalka sida Berbera, xaruntii daraawiishta talex, Zeilac, Bullaxaar, Maydh & Xiis, Laas-qoray, jasiiradaha Sacaadadiin iyo ceebood, buurta Daallo, buurta Gacan-libaax (Waxa waliba lagu sameeyay dhisme iyo dayactir buurta dusheeda( buurta Saw, Laasgeel (Goob aasaar qadiimi ah oo sannad dhawaa khubaro faransiis ahi ka heleen degmada hore loo odhan jiray Dacar-budhuq, haddana loogu magac daray Laasgeel) ɖɦaɦaʀ ɖɦʊʟҡɨɨ զʊʀʊxɖa ɖaʀɨstɨɨ զʊʀxօօռaʏɖ ɖɦaɦaʀ ċʀɛɛռʟaռɖ iyo goobo kale oo aan xusi doonno. Waxannu ugu bushaaranaynaa soo booqdayaasha bartan inaanu boggan idiin ku soo gudbin doonno xogo iyo macluumaad faahfaahsan oo la xidhiidha dhammaan goobaha taariikhiga ah ee la dalxiiso Somaliland, xaqiiqooyin ku xeeran iyo is bedello ku yimi goobo ka mid ah.

Guud ahaan, gobolkasta Somaliland waxa ka jira goobo caana ah, taariikhi ah ama lagu tilmaami karo fursadaha iyo/ama khayraadka qaaliga ah ee dalku leeyahay dhinaca dalxiiska iyo taariikhda. Laasgeel waa goob leh godod hoose oo leh xaradh iyo astaamo qadiimiga ah oo lagu qiyaasay inay noqon karayaan aasaarta taariikhiga ah ee ugu da’da weyn geeska ama qaarada Afrikaba guud ahaan marka loo eego sawirrada farshaxanka iyo astaamaha muujinaya quruumo qarniyaal badan ka hor dhulka ku noolaa. Aasaartan qadiimiga ah waxa goobtan ku ogaaday khubaro faransiis sannadkii 2002, illaa immikana waxay ka midtahay goobaha taariikhiga ah ee aad loo dalxiiso, isla markana ay Wasaaradda Dalxiiska iyo Dawladda xaqiijiyaan nabadgelyada iyo ilaalinta aasaartan iyadoo si taxadir leh loogu oggolaado dalxiisayaashaa gaarka ah.Goobta Laasgeel waxa 6km woqooyi looga weecdaa tuulada Dhubato ee Degmada Laasgeel ee hore loo odhan jiray Dacar-budhug, immikana loogu magac daray Laasgeel oo 55KM bari ka xigta Hargeysa, kuna taalla wadada halbawlaha ah ee Hargeisa-Berbera.

Ciyaaraha

Ciyaaraha Somaliland Tartanka ciyaaraha somaliland oo ah mid sanadkiiba mar laqabto ayaa sanadkan ahaa mid xiiso leh,waxa sanadkan kamid ahaa ciyaaraha lagusoo bandhigay sida ciyaaraha orodada Kubada cagta Kubada Kolayga iyo waliba qaarkale oo badan.waxa sanadkan ciyaaraha 2011 ciyaaraha somaliland lagu qabtay magaalo madaxda gobolka Togdheer ee magaalda Burco gaar ahaan garoonka ciyaaraha ee caanka ah ee looyaqaano Alamsay.

Kahor intii aan lasoo gaadhin ciyaaraha kama danbaysta ah waxa lasoomaray isreebreeb ay ka qaybqaateen dhamaan gobalada Somaliland waxaana iskusoo hadhay sideedan Gobol oo soo bandhigay ciyaaro aad iyo aad u xiiso lahaa waxaa ay ahyd markii ugu horaysay ee ciyaaraha somaliland sitoosa caalamkka looga daawado waxa siidaynta ciyaarta hawada dadaka usoo marinayaay warbaahinta qaranka iyo tan madaxa banaan waxaana laga daawanayay daafaha caalmaka.

Muuqaalo

Sido kale fiiri

Xigasho

Tixraac

  1. Name used in The Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland and in Somaliland Official Gazette
  2. Susan M. Hassig, Zawiah Abdul Latif, Somalia, (Marshall Cavendish: 2007), p.10.
  3. Paul Dickson, Labels for locals: what to call people from Abilene to Zimbabwe, (Merriam-Webster: 1997), p.175.
  4. "Issue 270". Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  5. "Somaliland Geography". Retrieved 28 March 2016. 
  6. REPORTER, I. (2012, September 18). As Somalia Struggles, Can Neighboring Somaliland Become East Africa's Next Big Commercial Hub? Retrieved December 26, 2015, from http://www.ibtimes.com/somalia-struggles-can-neighboring-somaliland-become-east-africas-next-big-commercial-1407582">"As Somalia Struggles, Can Neighboring Somaliland Become East Africa's Next Big Commercial Hub?". International Business Times. September 18, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2015. 
  7. World Bank. New World Bank GDP and Poverty Estimates for Somaliland January 29, 2015. Accessed February 14, 2015.
  8. "Somalia". World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009. 
  9. "SOMALILAND CLIMATE : when to visit". Jouneys by Design (in Ingiriisi). Retrieved 12 March 2020. 
  10. "Somaliland in Figures" (PDF). 
  11. "Climate of Somalia" (PDF). Food and Agriculture Organization. pp. 69–73. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  12. "Long term mean monthly sunshine fraction in Somalia". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  13. "Klimatafel von Hargeisa / Somalia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 November 2016. 
  14. "Land Resources Assessment of Somalia" (PDF). Somalia Water and Land Information Management Project. June 2009. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  15. "Appendix I: Meteorological Data" (PDF). Springer. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  16. "Klimatafel von Berbera / Somalia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 22 October 2016. 
  17. "Long term mean monthly sunshine fraction in Somalia". Food and Agriculture Organization. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2011. 
  18. "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Burao, Somalia". Weatherbase. 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2011. 
  19. "Climate: Burao, Somalia". Climate-Data.org. 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013. 
  20. "Klimatafel von Erigavo / Somalia" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 4 November 2016.