Jadwalka Curiyayaasha

Jadwalka Curiyayaasha ama Kaltanka Curiyayaasha waa jadwal ama baddhig ka hadla curiyeyaasha kiimikada ah ee la yaqaan, inkastoo ay jadwallo kan ka horeeyay ay jiraan hadana jadwalkaan waxaa waxaa loo tiiriyaa inuu kiimikiistihii ruushka ahaa Dmitri Mendeleev sandkii 1869 ayuu u habeeyay hadba sida ay isu leeyihiin unugyada wareegooda iyo sida ay u falgalaan. ka dib 1911 henry mozili habaynta curiyeyaasha hadba tirada unugyada uu ka samaysanyahay, ama tirada barootoonada ku jira curiye walba, waayo markii la joogaba waxbaa laga badali jiray iyadoo lagu daray curiyeyaal la ogaaday oon awal ka mid ahayn, sida loogu kordhiyay tusaaleyaal aragtiyeed oo sharax siinaya qaababka iyo siyaha ay u shaqeeyaan curiyeyaasha kiimikada ah.

Diwaanka Curiyr waxa Midabka loo sudhay si uu u muujiyo qaybaha isku isticmaalka ah. Waxay ku kala duwan yihiin dhanka ilaha markay noqoto xadadka u kala dhexeeya harooyinka
Diwaanka Curiyaasha

Jadwalka curiyeyaasha ayaa noqoday waqtigaan mid looga tiirsanyahay dhamaan iskoolada iyo goobaha kiimikada khuseeya, isagoo sahlay shaqada iyo ogaashah ama is barbar dhiga waxyaabah ay la gaarka yihiin curiyeyaasha kiimikada,

Jadwalka curiyeyaasha ayaa leh fulinno fara badan oo kala duwan dhinaca kiimikada, fiisikiska, cilmiga noolaha iyo dhismaha waliba dhismaha kiimikada.

DHismaha Diwaanka curiyeyaashaEdit

5
Diwaanka Curiyr waxa Midabka loo sudhay si uu u muujiyo qaybaha isku isticmaalka ah. Waxay ku kala duwan yihiin dhanka ilaha markay noqoto xadadka u kala dhexeeya harooyinka




Shaxda Diiwaanka CuriyeEdit

Qaab-dhismeedka miiska diiwaanka curiye waa shax ka kooban 18 saf oo kor ka imanaya ilaa hoos iyo 7 saf oo ka bilaabma midig ilaa bidix, iyo labo saf oo ka hooseeya. Sidoo kale, miiska jadwalka diiwaanka curiye waxaa loo kala jabin karaa afar afar-gees oo kala ah: s-block oo dhinaca bidix xiga, p-block oo dhanka midig xiga, d-block oo dhexda ku jira, iyo f-block oo ka hooseeya dhamaantoodba.

Qaybaha khaanadaha safafka midig ilaa bidix waxaa loo yaqaanaa heerka (period), sida heerka 1aad, halka safafka khaanadaha kor ka imanaya loo yaqaano guruub (group) kuwaas oo qaarkood magacyo leeyihiin sida Biniktojiin (Pnictogens) oo ah guruubka 15aad, Jaalkojiin (chalcogen) oo ah guruubka 16aad,Halogens guruubka 17aad iyo Neefta Gobta (noble gas) guruubka 18aad.

Dhamaan curiyaha ka soo biloow mida koowaad ee Haydarojiin oo leh tiro atomic 1 ilaa laga gaadho curiyaha 118 Ununoktiyaam waxaa la helay wakhtiyo kala duwan iyo meelo kala duwan; ayadoo curiyaha 113, 115, 117 iyo 118 aan wali la xaqiijinin. In kastoo qaarkood la arko qadar iyo tiro aad u yar, 98ka curiye ee ugu horeeya jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye ayaa ah kuwo si dabiici ah looga helo oogada dhulka.

Jadwalka Curiyayaasha ( Kaltanka Curiyayaasha)
Qaybaha → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Walxaha
1 1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo

Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr


</noinclude>

Guruubyada Diwaanka CuriyeEdit

Marka laga waramayo jadwalka miiska Diwaanka Curiye Guruubku waa guuto curiye isku astaan, dhaqan iyo calaamad ah kuwaas oo ku jira hal saf oo khaanadaha Diwaanka Curiye.

Shaxda jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye, oo uu sameeyay saynisyahan Ruush ah Dmitri Mendeleev, waxay ka kooban yihiin 18 Guruub kuwaas oo ey ku dhex jiraan dhamaan 118ka Curiye. Inkastoo guruubyadu ku magacaaban yihiin tirada guruubka oo u dhexaysa 1 ilaa 18 qaarkood waxay leeyihiin magacyo u gaar ah, kuwaas waxaa ka mid ah Guruubka 15aad oo lagu magacaabo Biniktojiin ama (Pnictogens), Guruubka 16aad oo ah Jaalkojiin (Chalcogens), Guruubka 17aad oo lagu naaneyso Halogens, iyo Guruubka 18aad oo loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta ama (Noble Gases). Waxayna kala yihiin: Guruubka 1aad (Birta Alkali), Guruubka 2aad (Birta Alkalineta Dhulka), Guruubka 3aad, Guruubka 4aad, Guruubka 5aad, Guruubka 6aad, Guruubka 7aad, Guruubka 8aad, Guruubka 9aad, Guruubka 10aad, Guruubka 11aad, Guruubka 12aad, Guruubka 13aad, Guruubka 14aad, Guruubka 15aad sidoo kale loo yaqaano Biniktojiin ama (Pnictogens), Guruubka 16aad Jaalkojiin (Chalcogens), Guruubka 17aad oo lagu naaneyso Halogens, iyo Guruubka 18aad oo loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta ama (Noble Gases).

Tirada curiye ee ku jirta khaanadaha guruubku way kala duwan yihiin. Qaarkood waxaa ku jira 8 curiye, kuwo kale wax ku dhex jira 6 curiye, halka guruubyada qaar ay ku dhex jiraan 4 curiye oo kali ah.

Heerarka Diwaanka CuriyeEdit

 
Heerarka Diwaanka Curiye.

Qaabdhismeedka shaxda miiska lagu ururiyey curiyeyaasha ee loo yaqaano Diwaanka Curiye wuxuu leeyahay safaf khaanado u kala socdo kor iyo hoos (guruub), midig iyo bidix (heerka).

Heerku (period) waa safafka khaanadaha ee ka bilaabma midig ilaa bidix ee miiska jadwalka curiyayaasha, kuwaas oo ah todoba saf (7) oo qeybta sare ka kooban tahay iyo labo saf oo ka hooseeya.

Curiyayaasha ku jira saf heerka isku midka ah waxay leeyihiin cuf atomik, awood aayano (ions), iyo is-heysad elektaroono isku mid ah. Ka soo biloow midig ilaa bidix tirada gacan-atomik hoos ayay u dhacdaa. Tani waxaa keentay isku xigida borotoonada iyo elektaroonada curiye ayaa aad ugu sii dhowaanaya bu'da atomka.

Si ka duwan guruubyada, Heerarka shaxda miiska diwaanka curiye ma lahan magacyo u gaar ah, laakiin waxaa lagu kala soocaa tiro kuwaas oo kala ah: heerka 1aad, heerka 2aad, heerka 3aad, heerka 4aad, heerka 5aad, heerka 6aad, iyo heerka 7aad. Intaas waxaa soo raaca labo saf oo ka hooseeya kuwaas oo kala ah Lanthanides iyo Actinides.

KhaanadahaEdit

S-BlockEdit

S-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira 2da guruub ee ugu horeeya guruubyada jadwalka Diwaanka Curiye. Kuwaas oo ka bilaabmaya guruubka 1aad iyo guruubka 2aad ee loo kala yaqaano Birta Alkali[1] iyo Birta Alkalineta Dhulka.

S-block curiyeyaasha ku jira waa kuwo intooda badan firfircoon oo leh astaamo iyo calaamado ka duwan dhamaan guruubyada kale ee Diwaanka Curiye.

In kastoo ay ku jiraan khaanado kale, Haydarojiin iyo Hiliyaam waxaa lagu tiriyaa guruubkan s-block.

Dhaqanka iyo astaamaha s-block waxay la xidhiidhaa tirada atomic[2] ee curiyuhu leeyahay, midaas oo sii korodha marka la sii dhexgalo diwaanka curiye. Labada guruub ee s-block waxay leeyihiin tirooyinka atomik ee hoos ku xusan:

Guruubka 1aad:
Haydarojiin (Z=1), Liithiyaam (Z=3), Sodhiyaam (Z=11), Botashiyaam (Z=19), Rubiidhiyaam (Z=37), Kaasiyaam (Z=55), Faransiyaam (Z=87).
Guruubka 2aad:
Beriiliyaam (Z=4), Magniisiyaam (Z=12), Kaalshiyaam (Z=20), Istoroontiyaam (Z=38), Baariyaam (Z=56), Raadhiyaam (Z=88).

D-BlockEdit

D-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira 9ka guruub ee ka bilaabma guruubka 3aad ilaa guruubka 12aad[3][4]. Curiyeyaasha d-block waxaa sidoo kale loo yaqaanaa Transitional Metal[5].

D-block curiyayaasha ku jira waxay leeyihiin tiro atomik[3] ka bilaabanta s2d1 (Guruub 3) ilaa s2d10 (Guruub 12). Tusaale ahaan, Cr waa s1d5 (ma ahan s2d4); sidoo kale, birta Guruubka 11waxay noqonayaan s1d10 (ma ahan s2d9), taasi oo dhamaystireysa qolofka-d (d-subshell) ee Guruubka 11aad[4][6].

P-BlockEdit

P-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeyaasha ku jira 6da guruub ee ugu dambeeya guruubyada jadwalkani, marka laga reebo Hiliyaamta oo ayadu ka mid ah s-block. Kuwaas oo ka bilaabmaya guruubka 12aa ilaa laga gaadho guruubka 18aad ee loo yaqaano Neefta Gobta (noble gases).

P-block waxaa ku jira dhamaan Bir Ma Ahe, birta daciifka ah iyo half-birta oo dhan.

Guruubyada p-block waa:

F-BlockEdit

F-blockta ku jirta Diiwaanka Curiye waa curiyeha atomkiisa ama aayaniskiisu (ions) leeyihiin elektaroono hab wareeg f (f-orbital). Curiyayaashan waxaa sidoo kale loo yaqaanaa curiyayaasha dhexe ee transitionka.

kooxahaEdit

lambarada kooxahaEdit

Cadaydnta qaabka jadwalkaEdit

Taariikhda Jadwalka curiyeyaashaEdit

Aragtida unugaEdit

Jadwallada cusubEdit

ADeegsiga jadwalkaEdit

Curiyeyaasha astaantoodaEdit

Sidoo kale fiiriEdit

Jadwalka Curiyayaasha ( Kaltanka Curiyayaasha)
Qaybaha → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Walxaha
1 1
H
2
He
2 3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3 11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4 19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5 37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6 55
Cs
56
Ba
*
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7 87
Fr
88
Ra
**
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Uut
114
Fl
115
Uup
116
Lv
117
Uus
118
Uuo

Lanthanides 57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
** Actinides 89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr


</noinclude>

TixraacEdit

  1. "Nuqul Archive" (PDF). Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original (PDF) 2013-01-23. Soo qaatay 2014-01-11.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin)
  2. http://periodictable.com/Properties/A/ElectronConfigurationString.sp.html
  3. 3.0 3.1 R.H. Petrucci, W.S. Harwood and F.G. Herring “General Chemistry” (8th ed, Prentice-Hall 2002), p.341-2
  4. 4.0 4.1 C.E. Housecroft and A.G. Sharpe “Inorganic Chemistry” (2nd ed, Pearson Prentice-Hall 2005), p..20-21
  5. Jensen, William B. Journal of Chemical Education (PDF). 80 (8): 952–961. Bibcode:2003JChEd..80..952J. doi:10.1021/ed080p952 http://www.uv.es/~borrasj/ingenieria_web/temas/tema_1/lecturas_comp/p952.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  6. F.A. Cotton and G. Wilkinson “Advanced Inorganic Chemistry” (5th ed, John Wiley 1988) p.625