Boqortooyada Ingiriiska

(Waxaa laga soo toosiyay Midowga boqortooyada Britan)
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Boqortooyada Ingiriiska (; ) (loo soo gaabiyo UK) waa wadan ku yaalo waqooyi galbeed qaarada Yurub. Midowga boqortooyadani waa gasiirad ka go'an qaarada Yurub inteeda kale. Britain waxee ka koobantahay, Gobolada Ingiriiska, Skotland, Waalis iyo Woqooyiga Irland. Wadanka Britain waa wadanka ugu badan caalamka xaga gumeysiga sida aysheegen qorayaasha calamku isagoo lagu xusuusto gumaysigii u caalamka intiisa badan ku gumaystey ahna imika wadanka caalamka ugu xooga badan waa wadan aad iyo aad dadkiisu xadaarada ugu dheerayan waana wadanka koobad ee dadka madow ictiraafay wadankaa waxaa lagu xasuusta doorkii uu ka qaatey dagaalki labaad ee aduunka waa door layaab leh isagoo Ingiriisku uu qabsadey caasimadii hitler uu ka talinayey ee barlin isaga iyo maraykanka iyo farance inkastoo anay dawladahaa an hore kusoo xusay anay waxba ka qabsan balse uu isagu siyaasadii lagu qabsadey fikradeeda bixiyey go. Aankii lagu gaadhey magaalada london ee caasimada wadanka ingiriiska ee ahaa ina aduunka laga tirtiro xasuusta Hitler oo la hirgaliyey 1945 oo laga qabsadey dhamaanba wadamadii ugumaysanayey iyo wadankii Jarmalka. e ten una frontièra al sud amb Anglatèrra. La Mar del Nòrd la costeja a l'èst, l'Ocean Atlantic al nòrd e a l'oèst, lo Canal del Nòrd e la Mar d'Irlanda al sud-oèst. En mai de l'illa principala, Escòcia amassa 790 illas. Las aigas territorialas d'Escòcia que cobrisson un sector larg de l'Atlantic sud e de la Mar del Nòrd contenon las pus bèlas resèrvas de petròli de l'Union Europèa Abuurista UK waxay ka dhalatay guuldaradii dhexdhexaadinta iyo dib udhigista Wales ee Boqortooyada Ingriiska, oo ay ku xigto ururada England iyo Scotland ee 1707 si ay u sameeyaan Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, iyo ururkii 1801 ee Ingiriiska oo leh Boqortooyada ee Ireland si loo sameeyo Boqortooyada Ingiriiska ee Great Britain iyo Ireland. Bishii lixaad ee Ireland waxay ka soo degtay Boqortooyada Ingiriiska sanadkii 1922-kii, waxay ka tagtay Qorshaha Boqortooyada Ingiriiska iyo Woqooyiga Ireland. [Note 11] Waxaa jira afar iyo toban Ingiriis oo Dibadda ah, [21] haraadiga Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, dhererkeedu wuxuu ahaa 1920-kii, wuxuu ku dhawaad ​​afar meelood meel ka mid ah dhulka adduunka oo dhan wuxuuna ahaa taariikhda ugu weyn ee taariikhda. Saameynta Britishka waxaa lagu ogaan karaa luuqada, dhaqanka iyo hababka sharciga ah ee badan oo ka mid ah gumeysigii hore.

A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue Coat of arms containing shield and crown in centre, flanked by lion and unicorn
Heesta qaranka: "God Save the Queen"[3]
Two islands to the north-west of continental Europe. Highlighted are the larger island and the north-eastern fifth of the smaller island to the west.
Location of United Kingdom (cagaar)

– in Europe (akhtar & buni)
– in Midowga Yurub (akhtar)

Magaalo madax
Waa Magaalada ugu balaaran
London
51°30′N 0°7′W / 51.500°N 0.117°W / 51.500; -0.117
Luuqada koowaad
iyo tan wadanka
Af-Ingiriis
Luuqado
kale
Af-Kornish, Af-Irish, Af-Iscots]], Af-Iskot Gaelik, Ulster-Scots, Af-Welsh[5]
Qaybaha qoomiyedaha (2011) 87.1% Dadka cad
7.0% Aasiyaan
3.0% Dadka Madoow
2.0% Isku-dhaf
0.9% Kuwo kale
Dadka British, Briton
Xukunka Dowlad Baarlamaan sharci
 -  Boqortooyo Elizabeth II
 -  Ra'iisul wasaare Boris Johnson
Sharci dejinta Baarlamaanka
 -  Aqalka sare Golaha Duqayda
 -  Aqalka hoose Golaha Bulshada
Samaysanka
 -  Midowgii 1707 1 May 1707 
 -  Midowgii 1800 1 January 1801 
 -  Madaxbanaanida Ireland 5 December 1922 
Baaxad
 -  Guud ahaan 242,495 km2 (80th)
93,628 sq mi 
 -  Biyo (%) 1.34
Tirada dadka
 -  2013 qiyaasta 64,100,000[6] (22nd)
 -  2011 Tirakoob 63,181,775[7] (22aad)
 -  Mugga Dadka 255.6/km2 (51aad)
661.9/sq mi
Wax soo saar (PPP) 2014 qiyaastii
 -  Guud ahaan $2.435 trillion (10aad)
 -  Qof qof $37,744[8] (27aad)
Wax soo saar (Iskaga magacaaban) 2014 estimate
 -  Guud ahaan $2.848 trillion (6th)
 -  Calaa qof $44,141 (22aad)
Qaybsiga (2012)32.8[9] (medium / 33aad)
Kobaca (2013)0.892[10] (very high / 14aad)
Lacagta Pound £ (GBP)
Waqtiga GMT (UTC​)
 -  Xagaa (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Taariikhda dd/mm/yyyy (C.D)
Wadista Baabuurta bidix
Furaha telka +44
Furaha Internetka .uk
Lo castèl de Cardiff, País de Galas.

Boqortooyada Midowday (UK) waa waddan horumarsan oo leh dhaqaalaha shanaad ee adduunka ugu weyn ee soo saara GDP-ka iyo dhaqaalaha sagaalaad ee ugu weyn iyada oo la iibsanayo sinaanta awoodda. Waxay leedahay dhaqaale dakhligoodu sarreeyo wuxuuna leeyahay "Heer sare" Horumarka Aadanaha ", 16th ee adduunka. Waxay ahayd dalkii ugu horreeyay warshadaha iyo awoodda ugu wayn ee adduunka ee qarnigii 19aad iyo qarniyadii 20aad. [22] [23] Boqortooyada Ingiriisku waxay wali awood weyn ku leedahay caalam ahaan dhaqaalaha, dhaqanka, millatariga, sayniska iyo siyaasadeedba. [25] Waa dawlad nukliyeer ah oo la aqoonsan yahay waana tan lixaad ee kharashka militariga adduunka. [26] Waxa uu xubin joogto ah ka ahaa Golaha Ammaanka ee Qaramada Midoobay tan iyo markii ugu horreeysay ee 1946. Waxa uu ahaa xubin hoggaamiye ah oo ka tirsan Midowga Yurub (EU) iyo horudhackiisii, Bulshada Dhaqaalaha Yurub (EEC), tan iyo 1973; Si kastaba ha ahaatee, aftidii sannadka 2016 waxay keentay 51.9% codbixiyeyaasha UK oo doonaya inay ka baxaan Midowga Yurub, ka dibna wadaxaajoodka dalka ayaa lagu xalliyaa. UK sidoo kale waa xubin ka mid ah Dawlada Dhexe, Golaha Yurub, G7, G20, NATO, Ururka Iskaashatada Dhaqaalaha iyo Horumarinta (OECD), Interpol iyo Ururka Ganacsiga Adduunka (WTO).

sheffield uk
tramka sheffield
babuurka UK
UK Lancashire , Europe.
Lincoln UK

1707 Falimaha Rasuullada Midawga Yurub waxay ku dhawaaqeen in Boqortooyada Ingriiska iyo Scotland ay ahaayeen "United hal boqortooyo Magaca Boqortooyada Ingiriiska", inkasta oo dawlad cusub ay sidoo kale lagu sharxay Falimaha Rasuullada "Boqortooyada Ingiriiska", "Boqortooyada Midowday "Boqortooyada Ingiriiska" iyo "One Kingdom". [31] [32] [note 12] Ereyga "Boqortooyada Ingiriiska" waxaa laga helaa isticmaalka sida sharaxaad, laakiin maaha magac, qarnigii 18aad, waddankana marmarka qaarkood loo gudbiyo in kastoo qarniyadii danbe ay ahayd "Boqortooyada Ingiriiska", inkastoo magaceeda rasmiga ah oo buuxa, laga bilaabo 1707 ilaa 1800, wuxuu ahaa "Great Britain", oo aan lahayn "qaab dheer". [33] [35] [36] [36] [37] Falimaha Rasmiga ah ee 1800 waxay midoobeen Boqortooyada Ingiriiska iyo Boqortooyada Ireland 1801, oo samaysay Boqortooyada Boqortooyada Ingiriiska iyo Ireland. Kadib qeybtii Ireland iyo madax-bannaanidii Irish Free State sanadkii 1922-kii, oo ka tagtay Northern Ireland oo ah qaybta kaliya ee jasiiradda Irland ee ku taal Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, magaca "Boqortooyada Great Britain iyo Northern Ireland" 38]

Inkasta oo Boqortooyada Ingiriiska ay tahay wadan madaxbannaan, waa waddan, England, Scotland, Wales iyo, heerka shahaadada hoose, Waqooyiga Ireland waxaa sidoo kale loo aqoonsan yahay wadamo, inkastoo aysan aheyn dawlad madax-bannaan. [40] Iskotland, Wales iyo Waqooyiga Ayrland waxay awood u leeyihiin in ay is-maamulaan. [41] [42] Bogga internetka ee Ra'iisul Wasaaraha Ingiriiska ayaa isticmaalay weedha "waddamo waddan ah" si uu u sharaxo Boqortooyada Ingiriiska. [20] Qaar ka mid ah warbixinnada tirakoobka, sida kuwa ku jira 12ka gobol ee 1aad ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, waxay kaloo tixraacaan Scotland, Wales iyo Northern Ireland sida "gobollada". [43] [44] Waqooyiga Ireland waxaa kale oo loo yaqaan "gobol". [45] [46] Marka laga hadlayo Waqooyiga Ireland, magaca sharraxaadda loo adeegsaday "wuxuu noqon karaa muran, iyada oo xulashadu marar badan muujinayso doorashooyinka siyaasadeed ee qofka". [47]

Ereyga "Great Britain" waxaa loola jeedaa sida caadiga ah jasiiradda Great Britain, ama siyaasad ahaan Ingiriiska, Iskotland iyo Wales. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waxaa mararka qaar loo isticmaalaa sida isku dhafka boqortooyada ingiriisku guud ahaan. [51] [kuma jiraan naqshad la siiyey] [52] GB iyo GBR waa qiyaasta waddanka ee dalka Boqortooyada Midowday (fiiri ISO 3166-2 iyo ISO 3166-1 alpha-3), oo sidaas awgeed waxaa isticmaala hay'adaha caalamiga ah si ay ugu gudbiyaan Boqortooyada Ingiriiska. Intaa waxaa dheer, kooxda Olympic-da ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska ayaa ku tartamaya magaca "Great Britain" ama "Team GB". [54]

Ereyga "Britain" waxaa loo isticmaalaa labada isku mid ah Iskuullada Great Britain, [55] [56] [57] iyo sida isku midka ah Boqortooyada Ingiriiska [58] [57] Isticmaalka waa isku dhafan yahay, BBC-da ayaa doorbideysa inay Britain u isticmaasho kaliya Ingiriiska oo keliya Britain [59] iyo Dawladda Ingiriiska, inkasta oo ay aqbali karaan in labaduba tixraacaan Boqortooyada Ingiriiska, doorbidid, xaaladaha intooda badan, si ay u adeegsadaan ereyga UK halkii Ingiriiska . [60] Inkasta oo Guddiga Joogtada ah ee UK ee Magacyada Juquraafiyiinta (oo qeexaya ay yihiin "magacyada joqoraafiga ah ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska") waxay ku taxan yihiin "Boqortooyada Ingiriiska" iyo "UK ama U.K." sida gaaban oo loo soo gaabiyo shuruudaha geopolitical ee Boqortooyada Boqortooyada Ingiriiska iyo Waqooyiga Ayrland, laakiin ma liisto "Britain", [61] waxaa loo isticmaalay "si aan rasmi ah" shabakadaha dowladda. [62]

Plaça Piccadilly Circus, amb un autobus roge.
Territòris de Cnut lo Grand (1016-1035).

Sifaynta "British" ayaa badanaa loo isticmaalaa in lagu tilmaamo arrimaha ku saabsan Boqortooyada Ingiriiska. Ereygan ma laha xidhiidh sharci oo qeexan, laakiin waxaa loo adeegsadaa sharciga si uu ugu gudbiyo muwaadinimada Ingiriiska iyo arrimaha muwaadiniinta. Dadka reer Boqortooyada Ingiriiska waxay isticmaalaan dhowr shuruudood oo kala duwan si ay u sharaxaan aqoonsigooda qaran waxayna u aqoonsan karaan inay yihiin British; ama sida ingiriiska, Scottish, Welsh, Irish Waqooyi ama Irish; [64] ama labadaba. [65]

Welsh, magaca qaabka dheer ee gobolka waa "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon", iyada oo "Teyrnas Unedig" loo adeegsanayo magaca qaab gaaban bogagga dowladda. Si kastaba ha noqotee, waxaa badanaa loo soo gaabiyaa "DU" ee foomka isbedelka "Y Deyrnas Unedig". Scottish Gaelic, qaabka dheer waa "Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn waa Èireann Tut" iyo foomka gaaban "Rìoghachd Aonaichte". Kadib dhammaadkii Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka 1945, Ingiriiska wuxuu ahaa mid ka mid ah Afarta Weyn ee awoodda (oo ay weheliyaan Maraykanka, Midowga Soofiyeeti iyo Shiinaha) kuwaas oo la kulmay qorshe hawleedka dagaalka ka dib; [115] [116] wuxuu ahaa saxiixa asalka ah ee Baaqa Qaramada Midoobay. Ingiriiska wuxuu noqday mid ka mid ah shanta xubnood ee joogtada ah ee Golaha Amaanka ee Qaramada Midoobay wuxuuna si dhow ula shaqeeyay Maraykanka si loo dhiso IMF, Baanka Adduunka iyo NATO. [118] Si kastaba ha ahaatee, dagaalku wuxuu ka tagay UK si aad u daciifiyay oo ku tiirsan dhaqaale ahaan qorshaha Marshall. [119] Sannadihii ugu dambeeyay dagaalkii, xukuumadda Shaqaaluhu waxay bilowday barnaamij xagjir ah oo dib-u-habeyn ah, taas oo saameyn weyn ku yeelatay bulshada Britishka tobaneeyo sano ka dib. [120] Warshadaha waawayn iyo adeegyada dadweynaha ayaa la qariyey, dawlad bulsho ayaa la aasaasay, iyo nidaam daryeel caafimaad oo dhameystiran oo dadweyne loo bixiyo, Adeegga Caafimaadka Qaranka, ayaa la sameeyay. Korodhka qaranimada ee gumeysiga ayaa ku habsaday xuduudaha dhaqaale ee Britain ee hadda taagan, sidaas darteed siyaasad-dejin la'aan ayaa ahayd mid aan la iska tuuri karin. Independence waxaa la siiyey Hindiya iyo Pakistan sanadkii 1947. [122] In ka badan saddexda sano ee soo socota, kolonyadii badankood ee Boqortooyada Ingiriisku waxay xorowday. Dad badan ayaa noqday xubno ka tirsan Commonwealth Nations. [123]


XubinEdit


Boqortooyada Ingiriisku waxay ahayd waddankii saddexaad ee horumarinta hubka nukliyeerka nukliyeerka (oo la sameeyay imtixaankiisii ​​ugu horreeyay ee atomiska ee 1952), laakiin xuduudaha cusub ee soo noqnoqda ee doorka caalamiga ah ee Britain waxaa lagu muujiyey Dhibaatada Suez ee 1956. Faafinta Caalamiga ah ee Luqadda Ingiriiska waxay hubisaa saamaynta caalamiga ah ee suugaanta iyo dhaqanka. [124] [125] Sababtoo ah yaraanta shaqaalaha ee 1950-yadii, xukuumaddu waxay ku dhiirri-galisay socdaalka ka yimid wadamada Commonwealth-ka. Tobanaan sano ka dib, Boqortooyada Midowday waxay noqotay bulsho ka soo jeeda qowmiyado ka badan intii hore. [126] In kasta oo ay korodheen heerarka noloshooda dhammaadka dabayaaqadii 1950 iyo 1960-kii, waxtarka dhaqaalaha ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska wuxuu ahaa mid aan ka badnayn intii badan oo ka mid ah tartamayaashiisa sida Faransiiska, Galbeedka Jarmalka iyo Japan.

 
Lo Palais de Westminster, sèti del Parlament Britanic, a Londres.
 
Mapa d'Escòcia

Escòcia es situada al nòrd de l'illa de Grand Bretanha

Hoggaamiyeyaasha wadamada xubnaha ka ah Midowga Yurub ee 2007. Boqortooyada Ingiriiska waxay ku biirtay Jaaliyadaha Dhaqaalaha Yurub sanadkii 1973-dii. Aftida lagu qabtay 1975, 67% codbixiyayaashu waxay u codeeyeen inay joogaan EEC, [127] laakiin 52% ayaa u codeeyay inay ka baxaan EU sannadka 2016. [128] Sannadkii 1960, Ingiriiska wuxuu ahaa mid ka mid ah toddobada xubnood oo ka mid ah Yurubta Bilaashka ah. Ururka Ganacsiga (EFTA), laakiin 1973 waxay ka tagtay inay ku biirto Beesha Yurub (EC). Markii Midowga Yurub uu noqday Midowga Yurub (EU) sanadkii 1992, UK waxay ka mid ahayd 12 xubnood oo aasaasay. Heshiiska Lisbon waxaa la saxiixay sannadkii 2007, kaas oo ah qaabka dastuuriga ah ee Midowga Yurub tan iyo markaas Meesha guud ee Boqortooyada Ingiriiska waa qiyaastii 243,610 kilomitir oo isku wareeg ah (94,060 sq mi). Wadanku wuxuu qayb ka yahay qaybta ugu muhiimsan ee Islaaxyada [141] oo ay ku jiraan jasiiradda Great Britain, waqooyi bari lixaad ee jasiiradda Irland iyo jasiiradaha yar yar ee ku xeeran. Waxay u dhaxeysaa Badda Waqooyiga Atlantik iyo Badda Waqooyi oo leh xeebta koonfureed ee ku taala xeebta waqooyiga Faransiiska, taas oo ay kala soocaan Ingiriisiga Kaniisada [221] Sannadkii 1993-kii 10% Boqortooyada Midowday ayaa laga beeri jiray, 46% ayaa loo isticmaalay daaqa iyo 25% oo beeraha lagu beeray. [143] Xafiiska Royal Greenwich Observatory ee London waa meesha ugu qeexan ee ah Meridian. [144]

Cuunto UKEdit



Part Population
(mid-2016)[11]
Percentage Area
(km2)[12]
Percentage
of total
area
Pop. density
England 55,268,100 132,938 53% 415/km²
Scotland 5,404,700 80,239 32% 67/km²
Wales 3,113,200 21,225 9% 147/km²
Northern Ireland 1,862,100 14,130 6% 132/km²
United Kingdom 65,648,100 248,532 100% 259/km²

Boqortooyada Midowday waxay u dhaxeysaa waddooyinka 49 ° iyo 61 ° N, dhererka 9 ° W iyo 2 ° E. Waqooyiga Ireland waxay wadaagaan 224-mile (360 km) xuduudaha dhulka Jamhuuriyadda Ireland [142] Xeebta xeebta ee Great Britain waa 11,073 mayl (17,820 km) dheer. [145] Waxay ku xiran tahay wadamada Yurubta ah ee Channel Tunnel, oo ah 31 miles (50 km) (24 mayl) (38 mayl) oo biyo ah) waa tunnelka ugu da'da dheer adduunka. [146] Ingiriisku wuxuu ka dhigan yahay in ka badan kala badh qeybta guud ee UK, oo ka kooban 130,395 kilomitir oo kiiloomitir ah (50,350 sq m). [147] Inta badan dalka ayaa ka kooban dhulal hoose, [143] oo leh dhul dooxo waqooyi-galbeed oo ka mid ah line Tees-Exe; oo ay ku jiraan Buuraha Cumbria ee Degmada Lake, Pennines, Exmoor iyo Dartmoor. Wabiyadaha waaweyn iyo hareeraheeda waa Thames, Severn iyo Humber. Buulka ugu sareeya ee England waa Scafell Pike (978 mitir (3,209 ft)) ee degmada Lake

 
Panorama de Londres, vist de la Catedrala de Sant Pau.

Skiddaw massif, magaalada Keswick iyo Derwent Water ee Lakeland Skye waa mid ka mid ah jasiiradaha waaweeyn ee gudaha Inner Hebrides iyo qayb ka mid ah Scottish Highlands Scotland waxay ku fadhidaa saddex meelood meel ka mid ah wadarta guud ee Boqortooyada Midowday (UK), oo ka kooban 78,772 kilomitir kilomitir (30,410 sq mi) [148] oo ku dhawaad ​​siddeed boqol oo jasiiradood, [149] inta badan galbeedka iyo woqooyiga dhulwaynaha; gaar ahaan Hebrides, Orkney Islands iyo Shetland Islands. Iskotland waa waddanka ugu badan buuraha ee Boqortooyada Midowday (UK) iyo dusha sare ee udubdhexaadkeedu waxa uu kala soocaa Khatarta Xuduudda Sare - Dhulka Jarjuubka ah ee Scotland laga soo galo Arran ee galbeedka ilaa Stonehaven ee Bariga [150] Ciladku waxay u kala baxaan laba gobol oo kala duwan; kuwaas oo ka mid ah Woqooyi iyo waqooyi iyo galbeedka iyo dhulka hoose ee koonfurta iyo bariga. Gobollada sare ee gobolka Hiiraan waxaa ku jira dhulalka buuraha ee Scotland, oo ay ka mid yihiin Ben Nevis oo 1,343 mitir (4,406 ft) oo ah meesha ugu sarraysa ee Islaanka Ingiriiska. [151] Degaannada Lowland-gaar ahaan dhulka hoose ee Firfircoonida Clyde iyo Firth of Forth oo loo yaqaan 'Central Bottle' -waxay kufilan yihiin dadkana waxaa ku nool dad badan oo ku yaal Glasgow, magaalada ugu weyn Scotland, iyo Edinburgh, caasimaddeeda iyo xarunteeda siyaasadeed, inkastoo xuduudaha iyo buuradu ay ku dhex jiraan

 
Population pyramid of the United Kingdom in 2017
 
Population pyramid for the United Kingdom as at the 2011 census.
Age structure for each five year band[13]
Ages attained

(years)

Population % of total
0–4 3,914,000 6.2
5–9 3,517,000 5.6
10–14 3,670,000 5.8
15–19 3,997,000 6.3
20–24 4,297,000 6.8
25–29 4,307,000 6.8
30–34 4,126,000 6.5
35–39 4,194,000 6.6
40–44 4,626,000 7.3
45–49 4,643,000 7.3
50–54 4,095,000 6.5
55–59 3,614,000 5.7
60–64 3,807,000 6.0
65–69 3,017,000 4.8
70–74 2,463,000 3.9
75–79 2,006,000 3.2
80–84 1,496,000 2.4
85–89 918,000 1.5
90+ 476,000 0.8











































Wadanamaha deggan UKEdit











































Sidoo kale fiiriEdit

TixraacEdit

  1. The Royal coat of arms used in Scotland:
     
  2. National Anthem, British Monarchy official website. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  3. There is no authorised version of the national anthem as the words are a matter of tradition; only the first verse is usually sung.[2] No law was passed making "God Save the Queen" the official anthem. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. "God Save the Queen" also serves as the Royal anthem for several other countries, namely certain Commonwealth realms.
  4. . Council of Europe http://conventions.coe.int/treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?CL=ENG&NT=148&VL=1. Soo qaatay 12 December 2013.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  5. Under the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Scots, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Irish and Scottish Gaelic, are officially recognised as regional or minority languages by the British government for the purposes of the Charter. See also Languages of the United Kingdom.[4]
  6. . Office for National Statistics http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/pop-estimate/population-estimates-for-uk--england-and-wales--scotland-and-northern-ireland/2013/index.html. Soo qaatay 26 June 2014.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  7. . Office for National Statistics http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/2011/uk-census/index.html. Soo qaatay 17 December 2012.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  8. . International Monetary Fund http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2013&ey=2014&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=46&pr1.y=7&c=112&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Soo qaatay 1 November 2014.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  9. . Eurostat Data Explorer http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di12. Soo qaatay 13 August 2013.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  10. (PDF). 14 March 2013. pp. 22–25 http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. Soo qaatay 27 July 2014.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  11. . Office for National Statistics https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/annualmidyearpopulationestimates/mid2016#population-of-england-reaches-55-million.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  12. . Office for National Statistics http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20160108051201/http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/beginner-s-guide/administrative/the-countries-of-the-uk/index.html. Soo qaatay 15 October 2017.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  13. 2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, local authorities in the United Kingdom, ons.gov.uk Accessed 23 December 2012


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