London waa caasimada dalka Midowga boqortooyada Britanwaana magaalada ugu wayn wadankaas. Waxa ay kutaalaa amaba dhexmara Wabiga Thames. Waxa ay kutaalaa koofurta Ingiriiska. Waxaa kunool dad gaadhaya ilaa 7.5 milyan oo qof. Marka lagudaro dadka hareeraha London kunool waxa ay tirado noqonayasaa ilaa 12,599,561 oo qof. Waa magaalda uguwayn midawga yurub, waana mid kamida goobaha ugu muhiimsan sayaasad ahaan iyo dhaqaale ahaan caalmaka. Waxa kuyaala magaalada jaamcado iyo guryo dhaqameedyo, masraxyaal iyo goobo dhaqan oo aad u waawayn. Waxaa xafiisyo kuleh ururo badan oo caalami ah.

london
Satellite view of inner London (2010)
London
CycleSuperhighway2Stratford-London-P1300696.JPG

London waa caasimada iyo magaalada ugu weyn England iyo Boqortooyada Ingiriiska. [8] [9] Magaaladu waxay taagan tahay Webiga Thames oo ku yaal koonfurta-bari ee England, oo madax u ah marinkeeda 50-mayl (80 km) ee aada dhinaca Waqooyiga Badda. London waxay ahayd degsiimad weyn laba sano, waxaana markii hore loogu yeeri jiray Londinium, oo ay aasaaseen Roomaanku. [10] Magaalada London, xarunta dhexe ee London iyo dhaqaalaha - aag dhan oo kaliya 1.12 mayl laba jibaaran (2.9 km2) isla markaana si iskood ah loogu yaqaanay Square Mile — waxay haysaa xuduudihii sida dhow ula socday xuduudaheedii dhexe. [11] [12] [13] [ 14] [15] [note 1] Magaalada ku dhow ee Westminster waxay qarniyo qarniyo ahayd meel ay ku taal in badan oo ka mid ah dowladda qaran. Soddon iyo kow degmo oo dheeri ah waqooyiga iyo koonfurta wabiga sidoo kale waxay ka kooban yihiin London casri ah. Gobolka London waxaa xukuma duqa London iyo Golaha London. [16] [note 2] [17]

London waa mid ka mid ah magaalooyinka adduunka ugu muhiimsan. [18] Waxay saameyn weyn ku yeelan doontaa farshaxanka, ganacsiga, waxbarashada, madadaalada, moodada, dhaqaalaha, daryeelka caafimaadka, warbaahinta, adeegyada xirfadleyda, cilmi baarista iyo horumarinta, dalxiiska iyo gaadiidka. [19] Waa mid ka mid ah xarumaha maaliyadeed ee ugu waaweyn adduunka, sannadka 2019-ka, London waxay ku yeelatay tirada labaad ee ugu sarreysa shakhsiyaadka hantida sare leh ee Yurub, marka laga reebo Paris. [20] Sannadkii 2020-kii, London waxay lahayd tirada labaad ee ugu badan ee bilyaneerrada magaalo kasta oo Yurub ku taal, marka laga reebo Moosko. [21] Jaamacadaha London waa iskudhafka ugu weyn ee machadyada tacliinta sare ee Yurub, [22] iyo London waxay hoy u tahay machadyo heer sare ah sida Imperial College London ee sayniska dabiiciga iyo cilmiga, London School of Economics iyo cilmiga bulshada, iyo sidoo kale Jaamacada dhameystiran. Kuleejka London. [23] Sannadkii 2012, London waxay noqotay magaaladii ugu horreysay ee marti gelisa saddex ciyaarood oo casri ah oo Olombikada Xagaaga ah. [24]

London waxay leedahay dad iyo dhaqamo kala duwan, in kabadan 300 oo luqadood ayaa looga hadlaa gobolka. [25] Qiyaastii bartamihii-2018 ee dadweynaha degmada (oo u dhiganta Greater London) waxay ahayd qiyaastii 9 milyan, [5] taas oo ka dhigtay magaalada saddexaad ee ugu dadka badan Yurub. [26] London waxay ka dhigan tahay 13.4% dadweynaha UK. [27] Aagga Dhismaha Weyn ee London waa meesha afraad ee ugu dadka badan Yurub, marka laga yimaado Istanbul, Moscow, iyo Paris, iyadoo ay deggan yihiin 9,787,426 tirakoobkii 2011. [28] [29] Aagga magaalada London waa meesha saddexaad ee ugu dadka badan Yurub, marka laga reebo Istanbul iyo aagga Metropolitan Moscow, oo ay ku nool yihiin 14,040,163 oo deggan 2016. [note 3] [4] [30]

London waxaa ku jira afar goobood oo Dunida dhaxal ahaan ah: Tower of London; Kew Gardens; goobta oo ka kooban Palace of Westminster, Westminster Abbey, iyo St Margaret's Church; iyo dejinta taariikhiga ah ee Greenwich halkaas oo Royal Observatory-ka, Greenwich ay qeexeyso Ra'iisul Wasaaraha Meridian (0 ° Longitude) iyo Greenwich Mean Time. [31] Astaamaha kale ee caanka ah waxaa ka mid ah Buckingham Palace, London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square iyo The Shard. London waxay leedahay matxafyo badan, qolalka kala duwan, maktabado iyo dhacdooyin isboorti. Kuwaas waxaa ka mid ah Matxafka Ingiriiska, Matxafka Qaranka, Matxafka Taariikhda Dabiiciga ah, Tate Modern, Maktabadda Ingiriiska iyo tiyaatarada West End. [32] Tareenka dhulka hoostiisa mara ee London waa shabakadda tareenka dhulka hoostiisa ugu da'da weyn adduunka.

Daraasadda dadkaEdit

Tirakoobkii 2011 wuxuu diiwaan galiyay in 2,998,264 qof oo u dhiganta 36.7% dadweynaha London ay yihiin Ajaanib-ku dhashay kana dhigaya London magaalada labaad ee ugu badan soo galootiga, marka laga yimaado Magaalada New York, marka la eego tirada buuxda. Qiyaastii boqolkiiba 69% ee Carruurta ku dhalatay London sanadkii 2015 ugu yaraan waalidkii ugu yaraa ee ku dhasha Dibadda. [212] Shaxda midigta ku taal waxay muujineysaa waddamada ugu badan ee ay ku dhashaan dadka deggan London. Xusuusnow in Qaar ka mid ah Dadka Jarmalka ku dhashay, ee ku jira booska 18aad, ay yihiin muwaadiniin Ingriis ah dhalashada Dhalashada ilaa waalidiinta u adeegaya Ciidamada Ingiriiska ee Jarmalka. [213]

Iyada oo ay sii kordhayso warshadaynta, Tirada dadka London waxay si xawli ah ugu soo qulqulaysay qarniyadii 19aad iyo horraantii 20aad, waana wax in muddo ah dabayaaqadii 19aad iyo horraantii qarniyadii 20aad magaalada ugu dadka badan adduunka. Dadkeedu waxay gaadheen heer sare 8,615,245 sanadkii 1939 isla markiiba Kahor intaanu dillaacin Dagaalkii Labaad ee Adduunka, laakiin marwalba way diideen 7,192,091 tirakoobkii 2001. Si kastaba ha noqotee, ka dib Dadweynaha ayaa ku soo korodhay in ka badan hal milyan oo sharci darro ah Tirakoobyadii 2001 iyo 2011, illaa 8,173,941 tirakoobka dambe ee REACH. [214]

Si kastaba ha noqotee, aagga magaalada ee sii-socda ee London wuxuu fidiyaa Ka-baxsan xudduudaha Greater London oo wuxuu gurigiisa ugu yeeraa 9,787,426 qof sannadka 2011, [29] halka magaalooyinkeeda ballaadhan ay ku nool yihiin dad aan sharci ahayn 12 iyo 14 milyan oo ku xidhan qeexitaanka la adeegsaday. [215] [216] Sida laga soo xigtay Eurostat, London waa magaalada ugu dadka badan uguna caansan magaalada Midowga Yurub waana magaalada labaad ee ugu dadka badan Yurub. Muddadii u dhaxeysay 1991-2001 waxaa soo degay London 725.000 muhaajiriin ah. [217]

Gobolku wuxuu ku fadhiyaa dhul dhan 1.579 kiiloomitir oo laba jibbaaran (610 sq mi). Cufnaanta Dadweynaha waa 5.177 qofood oo ku nool halkii kiilomitir oo isku wareeg ah (13,410 / sq mi), [218] in ka badan toban jeer marka loo eego meydadka gobolka kale ee Ingiriiska. [219] Marka laga hadlayo tirada dadka, London waa magaalada 19aad ee ugu weyn iyo gobolka 18aad ee ugu weyn magaalooyinka waaweyn. [220] [221]

Ethnic groupsEdit





 

Ethnic groups in the 2011 census [1]

  White British (37.9%)
  Other White (20.9%)
  Asian (12.4%)
  Black (7.3%)
  Arab (10.3%)
  Mixed (7.2%)
  Other (15.2%)



















































































































sido kale fiiriEdit

  1. "2011 Census: Key Statistics for Local Authorities in England and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 3 July 2014