Brotist

(Waxaa laga soo toosiyay Brotista)
Kani waa maqaal ku saabsan koox ka mid ah noolaha..
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Temporal range: Neoproterozoic – Recent
Protist collage.jpg
Kala saarista cilmiga ah
Domain: Eukarya
Genus: ku abtirsada
Species: Noocyada

Kooxo ka madax banaan

Supergroups[1] and typical phyla
  • Archaeplastida
    • Red alga
    • Glaucophyta
  • SAR supergroup
    • Stramenopiles
    • Alveolata
      • Apicomplexa
      • Ciliophora
      • Dinoflagellata
    • Rhizaria
      • Cercozoa
      • Foraminifera
      • Radiolaria
  • Excavate
    • Euglenozoa
    • Percolozoa
    • Metamonad
  • Amoebozoa
  • Opisthokonta
    • Choanozoa

Kuwo kale;
kala saarka waa lagu kala duwan yahay

Brotist (; ; loogu dhawaaqo: /tɨst/) (magaca Saynis paraphyletic) waa koox balaadhan oo noole ka tirsan silsilada boqortooyooyinka nolosha. Brotist waa noole yar (ili-maqabatay ah) leh hal unug, kaasi oon lahayn waslad (ama xubno is-heystaa ama iskuxidhan). Wakhtiyadii hore waxaa kooxdan lagu dari jiray dhinaca boqortooyada Brotistai, laakiin xadaarada iyo Sayniska cusub ee maanta waxaa loo aqoonsaday in Brotista ka tirsan tahay lafdhabar la'leyda (noolaha aan lahay lafdhabarka).[2][3][4] An equivalent term Protoctista is used for these organisms by various organisations and institutions.[5][6][7]

Qeybaha BoqortooyooyinkaEdit

In kastoo kala qeybinta kooxaha boqortooyada ee biyoloji lagu kala duwan yahay, wadanka Maraykanka iyo Kanada waxay qeybahaasi ka dhigaan ilaa lix kooxood (Xayawaan, Dhir, Fungi, Brotista, Arjaeya, Bakteriya); halka wadanada ay ka mid yihiin Ingiriiska, Hindiya, Australia, Latin Amerika, meelo badan oo Afrika ah iyo wadano kale waxay aqoonsadeen kaliya shan koox oo ka tirsan boqortooyada, kuwaasi oo kala ah: Xayawaanka, Dhirta, Fungiga, Brotistaha iyo Bakteriyada.[8]


Noole

Boqortooyo Dhir



Boqortooyo Xayawaan



Boqortooyo Brotist



Boqortooyo Bakteriya



Boqortooyo Fungi




Qoraalo KaleEdit

TixraacEdit

  1. Adl Sina M.; et al. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology (PDF). 59 (5): 429–514. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x http://www.paru.cas.cz/docs/documents/93-Adl-JEM-2012.pdf.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  2. Gooday, A. J. Advances in marine biology. 46: 1–90. PMID 14601411. doi:10.1016/s0065-2881(03)46002-1.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  3. Kirk, N. L.; Ritson-Williams, R.; Coffroth, M. A.; Miller, M. W.; Fogarty, N. D.; Santos, S. R. PLoS ONE. 8 (11): e80618. PMC 3833926 . PMID 24260438. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080618 //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3833926.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  4. Zhao, Y.; Gentekaki, E.; Yi, Z.; Lin, X. PLoS ONE. 8 (10): e77044. PMC 3812207 . PMID 24204730. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0077044 //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812207.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  5. Miloslavich, P.; Díaz, J. M.; Klein, E.; Alvarado, J. J.; Díaz, C.; Gobin, J.; Escobar-Briones, E.; Cruz-Motta, J. J.; Weil, E.; Cortés, J.; Bastidas, A. C.; Robertson, R.; Zapata, F.; Martín, A.; Castillo, J.; Kazandjian, A.; Ortiz, M. PLoS ONE. 5 (8): e11916. PMC 2914069 . PMID 20689856. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916 //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2914069.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  6. Martínez-Girón, R; Ribas-Barceló, A. Diagnostic Cytopathology. 35 (1): 32–3. PMID 17173305. doi:10.1002/dc.20584 http://www.researchgate.net/publication/6627376_Pitfall_in_sputum_cytology_protoctista_resembling_adenocarcinoma_cells.  Maqan ama ebar |title= (caawin)
  7. Osaka, T; Beika, A; Hattori, A; Kohno, Y; Kato, K. H.; Mizutani, T. "Nuqul Archive" (PDF). Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 300 (1): 236–40. PMID 12480549. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02806-1. Waxaa laga kaydiyay the original (PDF) 2016-03-03. Soo qaatay 2015-12-27.  Barameter aan la aqoon |ciwaan= ignored (caawin)
  8. Huber M, Knottnerus JA, Green, L., van der Horst H, Jadad AR, Kromhout D, Smid H. BMJ 2011; 343 (d4163) http://savenhshomeopathy.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Huber-Definition-Health-BMJ-21.pdf Archived Oktoobar 19, 2020 // Wayback Machine
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